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My preliminary setup of a Netgate 6100 and PFSense

It is a continuation of the posts on community safety.

Within the final submit, I confirmed you find out how to direct all DNS requests to your most popular DNS servers.

As famous, the submit didn’t embrace DNS over HTTPS (DoH) and you would need to take care of that individually or block it.

I’m now testing the PFSense 6100. Different Netgate safety gadgets can be related. I will undergo what I did to initially set it up step-by-step, up to a degree. That is the primary a part of extra posts to comply with.

About Netgate 6100

For a fantastic video explaining the options obtainable on the Netgate 6100, take a look at this video:

Issues when configuring new community gadgets

I do not wish to simply open this up extensively to the web with out having the ability to examine the visitors. I wrote about it right here:

I prohibit entry to the administration port to a bodily connection on a single port. I am unable to bodily connect with each of my firewall gadgets directly from a single Ethernet port on my laptop computer.

I will see if I can join a community cable to 2 separate computer systems and monitor that approach.

  • Join LAPTOP 1 to the administration port on FIREWALL 1.
  • Open the firewall logs on FIREWALL 1 and confirm that you may examine the visitors.

Now I will activate the second laptop computer and join it to one of many firewall ports so I can examine the visitors that the system is producing.

  • Join LAPTOP 2 to the primary LAN port on the 6100 (FIREWALL 2).

Netgate has an image right here of the totally different ports with the LAN ports as #5:

https://docs.netgate.com/pfsense/en/newest/options/netgate-6100/io-ports.html
  • Plug the WAN port 1 of FIREWALL TWO (#2 RJ-45 above) into the suitable port on FIREWALL 1.
  • Plug within the system.
  • If you wish to see the visitors earlier than permitting it, you’ll be able to block all visitors on the port that the brand new firewall connects to. (Unsure what havoc it will wreak…we’ll discover out.)

Now, in my final submit, I used two totally different distributors to run this check, which might be a greater check, however I am not doing a full safety analysis of this product. I simply wish to see what it does once I plug it in.

I see two issues.

  1. Checking Web entry, I am assuming utilizing ICMP.
  2. DNS visitors goes to some host apart from my configured DNS servers.

The very first thing I wish to do is have the firewall use CloudFlare for DNS. Let’s examine if I can login now. As with most routers, the IP deal with ought to be: 192.168.1.1. I had already set FIREWALL 1 to a distinct IP deal with, so there ought to be no battle, and my LAPTOP2 can be immediately linked to FIREWALL2.

It is unlucky that pfsense nonetheless makes use of a typical username and password. That is one more reason to not join it on to the web at preliminary startup, however as an alternative have it behind one other system. Most system producers now publish a novel password for every system and it seems on a sticker on the system. Some legal guidelines will quickly implement this. Hopefully the newer gadgets from Netgate will make that change.

Preliminary setup

Observe the PFSense wizard to initially arrange the system.

  • Navigate to https://192.168.1.1
  • Observe the instructions.
  • Change your DNS servers to CloudFlare if you want.
  • Change the time servers to one thing apart from the default NTP group if you want. For instance, you’ll be able to select to make use of NIST ntp servers in time.nist.gov.
  • Change username and password.
  • Do not verify for updates as a result of we nonetheless have some networks blocked.
  • Don’t change the IP deal with. Once I did that, I could not log in to the system anymore. I am unsure if that was because of the explicit IP deal with I selected.

Pay attention to all that as a result of if you’re like me, then you’ll neglect the password. 😀 Preserve your passwords someplace protected, clearly.

Take a look at your new login and configuration modifications

Take a look at entry along with your new settings to make sure that you may nonetheless entry FIREWALL2 from LAPTOP2 and that your new username and password work. There is no such thing as a level in redoing all of your settings once more if one thing goes fallacious with it.

Initially, I modified the IP vary for the system and acquired blocked. I reset the system and began over since I hadn’t completed a lot.

Resetting the 6100 in case of preliminary incorrect configuration

The reset directions aren’t precisely clear. The place is the reset button? A picture can be useful. It is on the facet of the case and is the highest indented button you’ll be able to press. Do not press too arduous as a result of I broke the reset button on a Ubiquiti community system. I attempted this one and you do not have to strive very arduous to get it to work. In addition to that, the directions are sufficient to reset the issue once more if you cannot log in.

Console entry ~ if internet UI crashes

If entry to the online UI is blocked resulting from a misconfigured firewall rule at any time, as an alternative of beginning over, you should use console entry to revert to a earlier configuration. You will want to learn the documentation right here and set up the suitable driver on your system.

I exploit a serial connection and the display command on a Mac described right here:

add the aliases

Now that now we have our firewall up and operating, we are able to restore the aliases from one other system, as I defined in a earlier submit, I will do that earlier than connecting to the web.

To ship my guidelines to the machine the place I am linked to the PFSense, I merely emailed myself the information, linked to Wi-Fi, logged into e mail and grabbed the information, then disconnected from Wi-Fi once more. I could have a greater answer, however that labored for me.

Add firewall guidelines

Now I might attempt to restore the firewall guidelines on my different system, however the issue is that this system doesn’t have the identical interface names and even the identical variety of interfaces. For that reason, I’m going to manually configure my firewall guidelines on this system.

The very first thing I will do is add a default deny rule for every interface and explicitly permit solely the visitors I wish to undergo on that interface.

I’ll add guidelines to dam essentially the most egregious criminals utilizing my aliases, as defined in different posts. Yow will discover all my posts on the web right here.

One of many issues I like in regards to the 6100 is that the ports are discrete by default. I needed to set that up on the 3100 to stop visitors between totally different ports from being allowed. I would like to check this additional as soon as I’ve the system arrange.

Add guidelines to entry the PFSense console and take away the auto-block rule

One of many issues I do not like about PFSense’s auto-blocking rule that ensures you do not get blocked. I like having a little bit extra management over that rule. Nonetheless, when you try this, you threat being neglected. You’ll be able to then use the console and return to a earlier setting or reset the system.

Disable saving of username and password within the browser

  • Go to System > Superior > Admin Entry. Uncheck this field.

Disable IPv6

I select to disable IPv6. You’ll be able to learn extra about it right here:

Redirect all DNS visitors to most popular DNS servers

For those who’re like me and do not wish to create a bunch of various guidelines for gadgets which have minds of their very own with regards to DNS visitors, you would possibly wish to redirect all of that to your most popular DNS servers earlier than opening up the visitors to the Web. I wrote about it right here:

You may as well configure guidelines to redirect ICMP visitors. This may break a couple of issues, so you will have to check it for every totally different system you find yourself redirecting visitors for.

Disable DNS decision

You might or might not wish to do that, however I disable the DNS Resolver. Among the different settings I’ve described right here will not work until you disable them.

There are professionals and cons to doing that, perhaps a subject for an additional submit.

Verify Firewall Logs – Create a Rule for DHCP Site visitors

The firewall settings enabled some new options.

  • Verify the firewall logs once more to see what now we have now.
  • Create a rule to permit DHCP visitors

Now that I’ve configured the system, I can see that port 67 is blocked. That is used for DCHP, which permits the firewall to get an IP deal with from the upstream system and connect with the community.

Within the screenshot above, you’ll be able to see that the protocol is UDP and now we have our system linked to PORT 2. We’re utilizing IPv4 solely, so we are going to create the rule as follows.

The supply port in our visitors above is 68 and the vacation spot port is 67, so we’ll open them in a brand new firewall rule.

Save after which apply the modifications.

See the visitors on interface two that now we have reconnected to the firewall and now our new rule permits DHCP.

No path to host

At this level, when you proceed to verify your logs on Firewall 1 and Firewall 2 to seek out out what else is blocked, you will discover an error: “No path to host.”

That is a subject I touched on earlier than and I hope it is coated in one other submit. As of the publishing date of this submit, I will be instructing an Azure class, so I am unsure how rapidly I will get to that one. You may in all probability see some Azure subjects earlier than I get to that.

Observe for updates.

teri radichel

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PFSense 6100 — Getting Started. Getting started with the initial… | by Teri Radichel | Cloud Security | Nov, 2022

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